Onshore CO₂-EOR is a mature technology that has been used in the United States for 40 years expanding to more than
140 projects. Producing about 4% of domestic US oil production,
CO₂-EOR injects about 70 MtCO₂/yr, which is mostly extracted from natural geological sources using a pipeline infrastructure of more than 4,500 miles. The expansion of onshore CO₂-EOR to 1 to 2 Gigatonne scale is feasible contingent on the availability of CO₂ from man-made sources at less than $30/tonne.
Public acceptance will be important. Extracting more oil via
CO₂-EOR in a carbon-constrained world may not appear logical. Gaining acceptance for the incentives needed to encourage
CO₂-EOR will require demonstrating that the additional environmental benefits and carbon intensity of the oil produced are far better than the alternative of business “as-usual” for crude oil operations phasing-out over the next 50 years.